It is normal to desire a higher level of cognitive functionality. After all, studies have proven that there is a link between intelligence and wealth, and there is no good reason to allow the genetic lottery to determine how successful you can become. With this in mind, many people turn to science to help them increase their IQ.
What Are Smart Drugs (Cognitive Enhancers)?
Smart drugs are special brain supplements that work on targeted neurons and neurotransmitters to improve various aspects of brain functioning such as focus, attention, memory, wakefulness, mental alertness, and learning ability. Unlike other brain supplements, these drugs naturally work on the neurons and brain cells and help improve the short term and long term memory of a person in different ways.
A great thing about smart drugs is that they cause little to no side effects during and after use, and the positive effects are clearly experienced by the user in most cases. People use different smart drugs for different purposes ranging from studying to anxiety to wakefulness.
For example, there is a smart drug called Noopept, which is 800-1000 times more potent (by weight) than the oldest racetam and gives more benefits for less dosage than any other smart drug available in the market today.
For more information check our Definitive Guide To The Best Nootropics & Cognitive Enhancers
How Smart Drugs Help Boost Brain Power
Smart drugs work in different ways to boost the brain and give optimum benefits to their users. However, the effects vary from person to person depending on a range of factors such as their age, gender, and health. In multiple studies conducted on smart drugs, it was observed that:
- They improve the production of endogenous chemicals called neurotransmitters, which are responsible for proper communication between targeted neurons.
- They stimulate the production of hormones such as dopamine and serotonin that control energy, focus, mood, and a number of other mental activities.
- Smart drugs help delay the aging of brain cells and promote the growth of existing brain cells.
- They also act as natural stimulants for the brain and help the user perform well in a range of memory-related activities.
Smart Drugs and Nootropics
There is a common myth among users that the terms “smart drugs” and “nootropics” are interchangeable. Even Wikipedia says so. Just search for the term “smart drugs” on Wikipedia and you’ll be redirected to a “Nootropics” page. To be clear, nootropics are a type of smart drug, but not all smart drugs qualify as nootropics.
What is The difference between Smart Drugs and Nootropics
Smart drugs are sold as prescribed medication and are mostly consumed for their off-label use – mostly to treat cognitive disorders and improve the mental functioning of the user. Good examples of smart drugs include Adderall and Ritalin – drugs are used to treat ADHD symptoms — and Modafinil, a popular productivity booster.
On the other hand, nootropics are not necessarily prescribed by doctors; many of them are available over the counter. They can be synthetic – like Noopept – or made of herbs, vitamins, antioxidants, and a range of chemical ingredients that deliver a natural positive impact on the brain and ultimately improve brain power in multiple ways. In a nutshell, nootropics come under the family of smart drugs and are used for specific purposes by users.
Nootropics For Studying? How Students Are Crushing It With Smart Drugs?
If you could take a pill that would instantly make you more focused, increase your brain’s performance and help clear brain fog, would you?
With courses becoming more competitive than ever, less room for failure and workloads increasing, many students nationally and globally are experimenting with various smart drugs and wakefulness agents to “hack” their brain and give them that competitive edge.
These substances, commonly known as “nootropics”, refer to an umbrella term for a range of drugs, food sources, herbal extracts and amino acids that help contribute towards nourishment of the brain and mental performance, with zero side effects. Many users say nootropics are a totally different experience from energy drinks, giving you a mental edge, increased memory and concentration, without the come down or “jitters” experienced with stimulants.
While the use of nootropics is a recently new trend, they have been around for many years with the term first being coined by a famous pharmacologist called Corneliu E. Giurgea in the 1970’s.
He stated that for a substance to be a true nootropic, it needs to enhance learning and memory, protect the brain against physical or chemical injuries and have very few side effects with low toxicity.
A recent study showed that over 30% of students have taken a smart drug at some point in their course to improve study and this momentum shows no signs of slowing down.
If you search anywhere online now, there are endless different types available that all have a different mechanism of action in the brain with the main purpose being cognitive enhancement.
What Do Smart Drugs Do?
Increased Neuroplasticity – If you find yourself reading the same material over and over and struggle to take in information, nootropics are able to help with new synaptic connections in the brain to help keep the learning process on track.
Accelerated Motivation and Attention – Nootropics such as Adrafinil stimulate the release of extra serotonin and dopamine in the brain that provides an energy boost that is accompanied by a raise in alertness.
To understand nootropics as a whole, it is first best to look at the different types that are being taken and their effects on health.
These study drugs can be broken down into two main categories that include prescription analeptics such as Provigil and less potent supplements made up of herbal extracts, amino acids and antioxidants.
At the top of the list in popularity at the moment are wakefulness agents such as “Modafinil” and “Aderall”. Prescribed to patients who suffer with narcolepsy, these high powered stimulant drugs are able to provide their user a lasting plateau of alertness and focus, lasting for up to ten hours after taking doses as low as 200mg, even on an exam day with little sleep.
The key issue with a drug such as Modafinil are the long term health issues and the hazards that are involved in buying these types of medicines from rogue pharmacies online. ‘The internet has resulted in access to a “medicine cabinet” of drugs for all occasions,’ says Dr Bowden-Jones. Regular usage can also come with unwanted side effects such as strong headaches, depression, anxiety, intense hunger and paranoia.
Strictly speaking, these types of agents are cognitive enhancers, but are also not true nootropics and posess no neuroprotective properties.
Dr Farah, from the Centre For Neuroscience has called into question the lack of research in these prescription only drugs making note that the enhancements will differ depending on the biological and physiological traits of each user.
While the research is still unclear on the health risks, it is easy to see why substances like Modafinil, that improve the decision making and problem solving capabilities in stressed individuals, are in such high demand.
That focus and clear mental state is key, say students, who like the fact they’re actually doing something positive for their mind, as opposed to purely getting hopped-up so they can push through all-nighter plateau. And while most of these people would rather not skip their daily dose, missing a day doesn’t have any withdrawal symptoms or ill effects.
The other area of nootropics includes a long list of supplements that are legally available to purchase in shops and online. These supplements are also gaining popularity as a safe and natural alternative to the prescription only substances that work through stimulation action only.
Many of the natural supplements, work in a slightly different way, assisting the growth of nerve cells in the brain and flow of neurotransmitters instead of direct stimulation. These classes include racetams such as Pirecatam, noopept etc, amino acids such as L-Theanine, Alpha GPC and Phosphatidylserine and also herbal extracts such as Lion’s Mane and Gingko Bilboa.
Alongisde these other substances, suppelemts and foods such omega 3 fish oils, coconut oil and essential B vitamins are all essential and healthy sources for optimum brain health.
While these may not be as potent as the prescription medicine, they are far more safer and extremely beneficial to mental health in the long term.
For the likes of Modafinil and Adderall, these drugs play a pivotal role in improving the lives of patients and treating the illnesses they were formulated to treat. However, classing these as “smart drugs” for the health seems a little bit crass.
It is likely that their use will not slow down anytime soon, but for now, the long term health risks most certainly outweigh the rewards.
The Quest for Enhanced Cognitive Performance
Scientists have been studying brain functionality for centuries, but many of the most exciting developments have occurred within the past 60 years. At this point, we have a good understanding of each cognitive mechanism, and research has determined that nootropics and other cognitive enhancers can have a positive impact on our mental performance.
Most nootropics have been created in a lab as a synthesized version of a naturally occurring substance, and they enable us to temporarily hack our bodies to achieve higher levels of success. There are many educational resources that take a close look at the latest nootropics research, including the Peak Nootropics blog.
Our cognitive mechanisms determine how we perceive the world around us. Additionally, these mechanisms are integral in the learning process, and they impact our ability to memorize new data and make rational decisions. These mechanisms can be hindered by everything from a low IQ to a lack of sleep, but you can overcome some of these obstacles by turning to cognitive enhancers.
Understanding Neural Mechanisms
The prefrontal cortex makes it easier to focus on tasks at hand by using a process known as attentional control. In a nutshell, this means that your brain determines which task is likely to be the most important, and it amplifies this information to help you pay attention. However, some people naturally struggle with their ability to pay attention due to an underperforming prefrontal cortex.
Your memories are sorted into two categories: Declarative and nondeclarative. The distinction between these two is based on the type of memory that you are trying to store and recall. For example, facts that you learned in school are in your declarative memory, but your ability to please a woman in bed stems from the information within your non-declarative memory.
People learn in two different ways: Through interaction and observation. Studies have shown that the data we take in while we are learning a new task is stored in the prefrontal cortex. The type of learning that you undertake will determine if your memories will be sorted into the ventromedial prefrontal cortex or the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Either way, it is vital for your prefrontal cortex to be performing well if you want to retain a new skill.
Although we often think of focusing on something as being somehow separate from our general ability to pay attention, the two things are the same from a neural mechanism standpoint.
The Mechanism-Based Approach for Enhancing Cognition
As you can see, your brain relies on the proper functionality of each aspect of the prefrontal cortex. If any portion of this is not up to speed, you can experience difficulty with memory retention, learning and the ability to focus. Therefore, it makes perfect sense that you can also enhance your cognitive skills by directly targeting each desired neural mechanism.
Neuroenhancement – Using Neuroscience-Based Techniques to Enhance Cognitive Functions
Scientists have spent a lot of time looking for the best way to enhance cognitive functionality, and three things stand above the rest: Brain training, brain stimulation and medication or supplements such as nootropics.
Acting Directly on the Human Brain and Nervous System
Your nervous system can decrease your cognitive performance if you are suffering from certain illnesses or taking medication, so it makes sense to create the opposite effect with a cognitive enhancer. By targeting the brain and nervous system through neuroenhancement techniques, you can boost your mental and physical performance.
Altering the Properties and Performance of Your Brain
If you have difficulty with certain aspects of your cognitive functionality, it is likely that you have a deficit of some type. Nootropics can temporarily alter the properties of your brain, and this will result in increased performance. For example, Piracetam helps the AMPA receptor.
Standard Neuroenhancement Techniques
Transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used to stimulate targeted areas of the brain in a non-invasive manner.
Transcranial direct current stimulation involves placing electrodes onto an individual’s head in order to send a low current to the specified area of their brain.
Neurofeedback can be utilized to train a brain to have a higher level of functionality in regards to the regulation of bodily functions.
4. Behavioral Training Techniques
Neurobehavioral training can be used to help the mind and body in numerous ways. For example, this technique can help people with pain management by training the brain to turn down its pain signals.
Nootropic Drugs Revealed
What Exactly is a Nootropic?
Nootropics are typically derived from naturally occurring compounds, and they can have a very beneficial impact on your mental and physical functionality.
1. Nootropics Offer Non-Detrimental Benefits
These chemical substances have been designed to offer neuroenhancements without negatively impacting the brain. Therefore, the few side effects that have been reported from users are generally extremely mild.
2. Reported Enhancements
Nootropics have been linked by medical studies and users to a long list of enhancements, including increased memory retention and recall, logical reasoning skills, learning, creativity, concentration, mood and overall mental energy.
3. Chemical Structures of Nootropics
Nootropics feature a variety of chemical structures, depending on which type of cognitive enhancer you choose. For example, Piracetam is a derivative of GABA. Additionally, the base structure of this nootropic is the same as the rare amino acid pyroglutamic acid.
How Do Nootropics Work?
The Distinction between Different Nootropic Types
There are multiple nootropic families, including stimulants, neutraceuticals, and racetams. Although all of these nootropics are meant to provide a mental boost, they do work in different ways and offer various results.
1. The Hippocampus:
One of the most commonly targeted areas of the brain is the hippocampus. Some nootropics have been shown to facilitate long-term potentiation in the region, and this contributes to enhanced memory and learning skills.
2. Glucose Levels and Oxygenation:
Without the proper amount of oxygenation and glucose levels, your brain will begin to slow down its overall functionality. Some nootropics can temporarily elevate these levels, which leads to a cognitive boost.
3. Influence and Modulation of Brain Systems and Chemicals:
Nootropics have the ability to influence and modulate the chemical makeup in multiple brain systems. For example, the glutamatergic system is targeted by the glutamate receptors AMPA and NDMA. Certain nootropics are also known to affect the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, and this impacts everything from mood to memory retention.
Understanding the Brain System
Developing a basic understanding of how each brain system works will make it easier to determine which nootropics are the right choice to suit your needs.
1. Acetylcholine and the Cholinergic System
Many nootropics target the cholinergic system because this has a big impact on your ability to learn, form and retain memories, make decisions, focus and have proper sensory perception. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that works with the autonomic, central and peripheral nervous systems.
2. Glutamate and the Glutamatergic System
This system fulfills a crucial role in the health of your brain, and it is vital for learning and memory. Glutamate, which is also known as glutamic acid, is an amino acid and a neurotransmitter. Due to this, many people seek out a nootropic that targets the glutamatergic system.
3. Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Systems
Both of these systems control your overall feelings of happiness and pleasure. It should be noted that nootropics do not directly target these systems, but there are still some supplements that are known to elevate the user’s mood by having an impact on them.
Best Nootropics – Effects and Mechanisms of Action
Before you can choose which nootropics to use alone or as part of a stack, you should take a few moments to review how each category of these supplements works within the human body.
The primary purpose of a cholinergic is to increase the levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Studies have demonstrated that this can help with decision making, and it also gives users the increased ability to retain new information, access existing memories and control their attention span. Some of the most commonly utilized cholinergics include Centrophenoxine, CHP Choline, and Alpha GPC Choline. These nootropics are most commonly utilized as part of a stack.
Racetams are perhaps the most well-known and popular family of nootropics. Their general function is to improve the sensitivity of the acetylcholine receptors, which increase the communication between the neurons. Although there are many racetams available, the three most commonly utilized options are piracetam, aniracetam, and oxiracetam.
This is the original nootropic, and it was first synthesized in 1964. A user reported benefits include a mild to moderate boost in cognitive functionality such as learning and memory retention.
This racetam is generally stronger than piracetam, and it has some anxiolytic effects. In scientific testing, aniracetam has proven to enhance learning and memory. Some users have also stated that it boosts their creative thinking.
This is believed to be the most mentally stimulating of the three main racetams, and it has been shown to enhance a high-affinity choline intake during lab testing.
Any nootropic or other smart drug that increases brain activity or the levels of dopamine in the brain is referred to as a dopaminergic. Boosting dopamine levels can have many positive benefits such as improved mood, and it can also increase libido in certain quantities. Due to this, dopaminergics are a popular choice for individuals who suffer from depression, anxiety or low libido.
This nootropic is touted by users as offering a big variety of benefits, ranging from elevated mood to cognitive enhancements.
This stimulating nootropic has been found by users to provide an energy boost and a reduction in anxiety. It is essentially a large dose of vitamin B1, and some users have stated that it gives a better form of enhanced energy than caffeine.
L-Dopa is the nootropic of choice for many users who have issues with low libido. This supplement is also reported to increase focus and overall energy levels.
Serotonin is a vital neurotransmitter that helps the human body regulate a long list of mental and physical functions, including mood, libido, and memory retention. If your serotonin levels are low, you can turn to serotonergics for a boost.
5-HTP is touted as a mood enhancer, and some users have also reported that it reduces anxiety.
Tryptophan is a naturally occurring amino acid. Increasing the amount of tryptophan in your system could lead to reduced anxiety, improved mood, and a better night’s sleep.
Adaptogens are believed to reduce stress and offer an improvement in the user’s brain health and cognitive functionality. It has also been reported that adding adaptogens to a nootropic stack can give brain cells the proper balance.
Users have attributed several positive benefits to taking ginseng, including improved memory retention and recall, higher levels of concentration and a reduction in the symptoms associated with depression and anxiety.
This natural supplement can be added to a nootropic stack to help promote mental well-being. User reviews often state that Kava Kava reduces anxiety and boosts mood.
People who have added Passion Flower into their nootropic stack generally regard this supplement as a viable option for reducing anxiety and insomnia.
The Gotu Kola plant’s leaves have long been reported to give users a calming effect, and they have also been studied as a potential supplemental option for a variety of cognitive issues.
Your metabolic system helps the body break down food and supplement sources and convert them into energy. Metabolic disorders can lead to obesity and other health issues. From a nootropic standpoint, metabolics are utilized with the intention of helping brain cells optimize their energy supply.
Some people refer to Vinpocetine as a neural antioxidant. Nootropic enthusiasts have reported experiencing improvements in the short and long-term memory, along with enhanced concentration skills.
Creatine is commonly used in nootropic stacks. The reported benefits include better memory retention and increased IQ.
This naturally occurring compound has an impact on the functionality and health of brain cells. User reviews have pointed out numerous benefits such as enhanced mood, attention, learning skills and memory retention.
Stimulants are typically taken by users who wish to experience increased levels of wakefulness, alertness and energy levels. Caffeine is a natural stimulant, but there are also other nootropic options available for people are looking for these positive benefits.
Modafinil is one of the most popular nootropic stimulants. It has been approved by the U.S. FDA for medical usage. Nootropic reviewers commonly state that Modafinil raises their energy level and makes them feel more alert.
Adrafinil is often stacked with racetams, and its users claim that it offers enhanced focus, energy, memory retention, learning ability and physical performance.
Best Natural Nootropic Supplements
Many people assume that nootropics have all been lab created, but this is not the case. In fact, there are numerous natural nootropics. You have probably been using some of these supplements for most of your life without being aware that they belong to the nootropic family, including caffeine.
Caffeine is by far the most popular and widely used natural energy supplement. Studies have proven that it offers an energy boost, and this can temporarily increase many mental functions such as focus and alertness. However, caffeine is also typically associated with an energy crash a few hours later. Due to this, caffeine pills are usually stacked with other nootropics that can help even out this particular side effect.
L-Theanine is found naturally in green tea leaves. This analog of glutamate and glutamine is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Many energy stacks include caffeine and L-Theanine because of their synergistic connection. Multiple reviews point out that this particular combination gives people the perks of caffeine without the typical drawbacks. Other benefits that have been touted by users include increased cognitive performance, memory recall, and alertness.
The medical ingredient bacopa saponins alkaloid is derived from this natural and effective antioxidant, which provides a viable method for improving energy. Bacopa Monnieri is also reported to offer better memory and enhanced cognitive functionality.
The Ginkgo tree leaves contain terpenoids and flavonoid glycosides, and these act as monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Although there is some debate about whether or not Ginkgo Biloba should be classified as a natural nootropic, reports do indicate that it is a good herb for promoting brain health.
This mushroom is an effective antioxidant, and it helps regulate blood glucose and lipid levels. Research has also indicated that Lion’s Mane can improve cognitive abilities and the secretion of Nerve Growth Factor. Many Nootropic users believe that Lion’s Mane can help boost intelligence.
This naturally occurring substance is found in the Periwinkle plant, and it is believed to improve brain oxygenation, which leads to a boost in memory and learning. This nootropic is placed in stacks when people are looking for increased focus, memory retention, and energy.
Fish Oil – Omega 3
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for proper health, and fish oil contains DHA and EPA acids. Research has indicated that Omera-3 is a critical building block for healthy brain development, and it is also believed to reduce the risk of dementia. As a nootropic, it is often utilized to reduce stress and improve memory.
This natural nootropic is extracted from the Huperzia serrata. Huperzine-A blocks the production of acetylcholinesterase, and its reported benefits include improved memory and cognitive functionality.
Finding the Appropriate Nootropic Supplements
There are many popular nootropics, so you will want to look carefully at the benefits and side effects that have been pointed out by reviewers.
Commonly Used Nootropics
Armodafinil is one of the newest nootropics available, and it has become popular because of user reviews that compare it favorably to Modafinil and Adrafinil. Armodafinil users indicate that it helps them focus, boosts their energy and increases their productivity. The most common dosage ranges from 50 to 150 mg per day.
Modafinil is often used by people who have issues with insomnia. It is believed to increase energy and alertness, and it is frequently put into a stack. Most users start with 100 mg per day, but 200 mg once a day is the standard dose after the first week.
This stimulant has been found to assist people with sleep disorders. Nootropic enthusiasts have reported experiencing a mental boost that also reduces anxiety and the symptoms of depression. Many users take 150 mg per day, and it is important not to greatly exceed this amount as there are more side effects associated with Adrafinil than most nootropics.
This racetam is touted as being 1,000 times more potent than Piracetam. Studies into Noopept have found that it can help memory retention and recall, along with learning and creativity. Noopept dosages range from 10 to 40 mg, and each dose is taken three times per day for optimal results.
This racetam compound is a derivative of Piracetam. User reviews indicate many potential benefits, including improved memory, better decision making, and enhanced mood. Most people take 200 mg of Coluracetam per day.
This natural amino acid reportedly provides increased energy and focus, improved mood and reduced anxiety. Dosages range from 200 to 400 mg daily.
As mentioned numerous times throughout this article, nootropic stacks are one of the most common methods that people use to get the reported benefits of each supplement. Stacking enables people to create the right blend to meet each of their specific needs.
For example, if you want to maintain focus, memory retention and concentration on a daily basis, you can stack Centrophenoxine, Piracetam, and Alpha GPC. If you want a temporary boost and will not be taking the stack each day, you can take Modafinil or Adrafinil in place of Piracetam.
Ultimately, the best way to find the right stack is to do some research into the exact results that you are looking for. Be sure to read user reviews and look for information regarding whether or not the stack can be taken daily.
Potential Dangers and Side Effects
Most nootropics are generally regarded as safe, but even the mildest supplement can have side effects. The most commonly experienced side effects include headaches, fatigue, and insomnia, and some people could develop GI tract issues. It is also possible that someone could have a rare allergic reaction to nootropics. Because the potential for these side effects can vary widely based on the specific nootropic and the dosage you take, it is best to look closely at any published information regarding your nootropics of choice.
Faster, Smarter, Stronger: Why Nootropics will be Huge Business?
Alan Glynn – author of the Dark Fields, which was later adapted into film and has since sent the search term “nootropic” into ascent after Bradley Williams’ performance in Limitless, recently has come out in criticism (in an article by the Irish Times entitled “Smart Drugs Don’t Work”) of the many websites that advertise products with “madey-up, science-y-sounding names” such as Cogniflex and Optibrain, claiming that there is no silver bullet – rather self-improvement or self-transformation is a slow burning affair which will take gradual and incremental steps, through an accumulative timespan of commitment and emotional intelligence.
An observation that most level headed individuals would not dispute whether noots (nootropic user’s) or otherwise but while author Alan Glynn is morally true in that what the big guns purport to offer: a super-accelerated boost in productivity, an instant cure to procrastinating, a mental clarity with boundless energy – all essentially fabricated benefits of becoming “miraculous” – this is not to deny there is a revolution of sorts taking place in the world of Nootropics.
The aggressive marketing that claims such quasi-superpowers are only one click away is both misleading and capricious, but with interest online in “viagra for the brain” experiencing exponential growth, the mounting rise of this search term looks unlikely to fizzle out any time soon, with the possibility of the Nootropic market set explode as Forbes point out in their May 2016 article – if – and this is the biggy, (as American’s love to buy supplements), if those that manufacture/market nootropics are able to:
a) Engage and pursue in positive academic research.
b) Hire innovative medical thinkers that can come up with solid studies and data-based findings.
c) Finally seek FDA approval.
If all these boxes are ticked – especially the latter – then nootropic pharmaceutical companies will probably go on to make a killing.
While Alayn Glynn goes onto say: “As far as I understand it, nootropics are subtle and most likely won’t be detectable if your lifestyle is anything other than a super-healthy one” in a previous interview with Nootropix.com he openly discloses that: “The world of cognitive enhancers and nootropics has come a very long way indeed since 1999 and I certainly had no personal experience with them back then and was only vaguely aware of their existence”, concluding that “I have no expertise or special knowledge about how this stuff works”.
When there is an irresistible offer for a shortcut to change – you will always have the snake oil salesman.
The perfectibility of man and the Gatsby-like notion of the transformation or reinvention of the self will always tug at the individual who wants to better themselves, and while none of the current day nootropics will perform like MDT-48 in Limitless, what they can do is possess the ability to install a clarity of thought to get your day going.
The fundamentals of boosting your baseline productivity level comes down to diet and sleep, and when you don’t feel good it’s hard to get the motivation and remember what it feels like to dominate your day.
The argument laid down in current online forums by noots is that taking a nootropic or stack (more than 1) can help replicate that amazing clarity of thought and motivation that you feel when you have your diet and sleep in check + a little bit more.
Before the exciting new-frontier feel of experimentation and liberation – as with the early days of the internet – is reined in and brought to heel as this whole nootropic arena is almost ripe for full-spectrum corporatization, you can learn about how and what people are using nootropics for here – to not just better themselves, learn faster but also to treat anxiety, depression, ADD, sex drive, joint pain and more, all without the propensity for abuse or the side-effects prescription pills inflict.
There are numerous positive user reviews for nootropics, and many of these supplements have been studied by scientists to help discover their potential medical properties.
Overall, most nootropics are generally safe on their own and in a stack. Users can take advantage of the perks associated with these supplements on a daily basis or simply to help them focus for an important test or presentation.
Kallum Mitterer is a huge fan of non-traditional ways to bio-hack yourself to better performance. This interest led to him starting up several online nootropic and botanical companies. He enjoys blogging about smart drugs and other compounds that help readers bio-hack themselves to better well-being and mental & physical performance.